I've decided to capture some frameworks on my blog for note keeping, since it will become a likely go-to place for me to reference. I'll start with Kotter's model and build from there.
1. Create urgencyThe first step is to get a sense of urgency building within the organisation that something must be done. Most people in most organisations feel overwhelmed by keeping up with the daily workload so suggesting doing something more to change the way the organisation works looks at best to be just more work and at worst to be something that is going to make things worse than they presently are. People need something to motivate them. Kotter suggested some things that work:
- Show others the need for change with a compelling object that they can actually see, touch, and feel.
- Show people valid and dramatic evidence from outside the organisation that demonstrates that change is required.
- Look constantly for cheap and easy ways to reduce complacency.
- Do not underestimate how much complacency, fear, and anger exists in your organisation.
2. Build team
- Show enthusiasm and commitment to help draw the right people into the group.
- Model the trust and teamwork needed in the group.
- Structure meetings for the guiding team to minimise the frustration and increase trust.
- Put your energy into step 1 (raising energy / urgency) if you feel you cannot move on to step 2.
3. See vision
- Try to see - literally - possible futures.
- Make the vision so clear that you can articulate in one minute or write, or better yet draw, it on one page.
- Supply a moving (emotional) vision such as serving people.
- Put forth bold strategies to make the vision real.
- Focus on how to quickly make the change.
- The vision in terms of the benefits people will see when they change their behaviour.
- What has to be done to make the vision a reality.
- Reinforcements when people exhibit the right new behaviours.
- "Wins" by people and groups who do the new behaviours.
- Anything and everything else about the change that will keep at the top of people's agenda.
- Keep communication simple and heartfelt.
- Do your homework before communicating, especially to understand what people are feeling.
- Speak to anxieties, confusion, anger, and distrust.
- Rid the communication channels of junk so that important messages get through above the noise.
- Use current technologies to help people see the vision.
5. Empower action
- Find individuals with change experience to bolster people's self-confidence with "we-won-you-can-too" stories.
- Recognise and reward in ways that inspire, promote optimism, and build self-confidence.
- Deal with disempowering managers through coaching or move them out of the way.
6. Create wins
- Early wins that come fast.
- Wins that are as visible as possible to as many people as possible.
- Wins that go through emotional defences.
- Wins that are meaningful.
- Early wins that speak to powerful players whom you need to engage.
- Wins that are cheap and easy even if small.
7. Do not let up
- Rid yourself of work that wears you down - tasks that mattered in past but may not matter now or tasks that you can delegate.
- Constantly look for ways to keep up the urgency.
- Use new situations opportunistically to launch the next waves of change.
- Show 'em, Show 'em, Show 'em...
8. Make it stick
- Never, never, never give up on step 7.
- Use new employee orientation to demonstrate what matters most in the organisation.
- Use the promotion process to place people who exhibit the new behaviours into influential positions.
- Tell vivid stories over and over about how things now work.
- Ensure continuity of behaviour and results that help sustain and grow the new culture.